How the virus is transmitted ?

December 7, 2006

The ways virus can be transmitted are :

1. Sexual transmission.
You may become infected if you have vaginal, anal or oral sex with an infected partner whose blood, semen or vaginal secretions enter your body. You can also become infected from shared sexual devices.
The virus is present in the semen or vaginal secretions of someone who’s infected and enters your body through small tears that can develop in the rectum or vagina during sexual activity. If you already have another sexually transmitted disease, you’re at much greater risk of contracting HIV. Contrary to what researchers once believed, women who use the spermicide nonoxynol-9 (used as a contraceptive)also may be at increased risk. This spermicide irritates the lining of the vagina and may cause tears that allow the virus into the body.

2. Transmission through infected blood.
In some cases, the virus may be transmitted through blood and blood products that you receive in blood transfusions. This includes whole blood, packed red cells, fresh-frozen plasma and platelets. In 1985, American hospitals and blood banks began screening the blood supply for HIV antibodies. This blood testing, along with improvements in donor screening and recruitment practices, has substantially reduced the risk of acquiring HIV through a transfusion.

3. Transmission through needle sharing.
HIV is easily transmitted through needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood. Sharing intravenous drug paraphernalia puts you at high risk of HIV and other infectious diseases such as hepatitis. Your risk is greater if you inject drugs frequently or also engage in high-risk sexual behavior. Avoiding the use of injected drugs is the most reliable way to prevent infection.

4. Transmission from mother to child.
Each year, nearly 600,000 infants are infected with HIV, either during pregnancy or delivery or through breast-feeding. The rate of mother-to-child transmission in resource-poor countries is as much as 40 percent higher than it is in the developed world. But if women receive treatment for HIV infection during pregnancy, the risk to their babies is significantly reduced. Combinations of HIV drugs may reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission even more.

It does not transmit by :

*Hand Shakes
*Socialising with infected persons
*Hugging and Social Kissing
*Sharing clothes
*Sharing Utensils or Dining Together

*Businesses and other settings :
There is no known risk of HIV transmission to co-workers, clients, or consumers from contact in industries such as food-service establishments. Food-service workers known to be infected with HIV need not be restricted from work unless they have other infections or illnesses (such as diarrhea or hepatitis A) for which any food-service worker, regardless of HIV infection status, should be restricted.

*Insects (I am going into greater detail on this topic as most of us are scared stiff on this issue.)

From the onset of the HIV epidemic, there has been concern about transmission of the virus by biting and bloodsucking insects. However, studies conducted by researchers at CDC and elsewhere have shown no evidence of HIV transmission through insects–even in areas where there are many cases of AIDS and large populations of insects such as mosquitoes

The results of experiments and observations of insect biting behavior indicate that when an insect bites a person, it does not inject its own or a previously bitten person’s or animal’s blood into the next person bitten. Rather, it injects saliva, which acts as a lubricant or anticoagulant so the insect can feed efficiently. Diseases as yellow fever and malaria are transmitted through the saliva of specific species of mosquitoes. However, HIV lives for only a short time inside an insect and, unlike organisms that are transmitted via insect bites, HIV does not reproduce (and does not survive) in insects. Thus, even if the virus enters a mosquito or another sucking or biting insect, the insect does not become infected and cannot transmit HIV to the next human it feeds on or bites. HIV is not found in insect feces.

There is also no reason to fear that a biting or bloodsucking insect, such as a mosquito, could transmit HIV from one person to another through HIV-infected blood left on its mouth parts. Two factors serve to explain why this is so–first, infected people do not have constant, high levels of HIV in their bloodstreams and, second, insect mouth parts do not retain large amounts of blood on their surfaces. Further, scientists who study insects have determined that biting insects normally do not travel from one person to the next immediately after ingesting blood. Rather, they fly to a resting place to digest this blood meal.

If you feel there are other topics which should be included or if there is a need for explanation on a specific topic please let me know.

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One Response to “How the virus is transmitted ?”

  1. Iven Says:

    Can a VIRUS be transmitted by scraping your knee on a road (resulting in bleeding), or on a dirty busy train platform??

    Thanks 🙂

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